HISTORY OF MASSAGE: Massage therapy
Since the founding of New China (1949), massage therapy has undergone further development and has become popular as one of the most important rehabilitation therapy.
Active massage therapy Qi, vital energy or breath and blood, channels and smoothes unlocks the joints. Local triggers physiological responses in tissues and improve blood circulation and lymphatic drainage. The blood circulation increases massage which promotes tissue metabolism and absorption of edema is shed blood and bleeding old. Since the flexibility of muscles and ligaments is also improved is restored to its normal function.
In summary, the proper function of massage therapy is to act directly on the affected organs to eliminate the cause of the fault or indirectly by improving the balance so that the organs themselves are strengthened; cure organic diseases precisely because this mechanism.
key factor in massage therapy are the different operations carried out with the hands or other body parts. Manipulative skills and their application are appropriate conditioning elements for their therapeutic efficacy. Handling should be smooth and fair, vigorous and persistent, so obtaining a penetrating action. Dear manipulation means should be light, but not superficial, consisting of, but not fixed, but hardness and vigorous shots. The same states that must meet, neither too fast nor too slow, constant pressure. Vigorous involves the use of a specific force that varies according to the patient's constitution, and dysfunction of the position of the lesion. Persistent means that manipulation should continue for some time without tiring the patient. All these aspects are organically correlazionano each other. Only a long period of practice and clinical application throughout handling make the operator able to exploit skillfully and effectively implement it according to the needs of the patient.
HISTORY OF MASSAGE: Chinese massage
Massage techniques are an important component of Corpus Medicus of traditional Chinese medicine is a therapeutic method based on the principles of handling areas or specific points in the body to stimulate the patient to fight disease. It was formerly called Tuina, push and scope, and which finds its first mention in the "Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine", in the chapter of "vital energy, blood, physical and mental constitution", which he says:
When the body is in a state of agitation, channels or meridians are avoided and, consequently, the body loses sensitivity and should be treated with the massage ...
Therefore, massage has a very ancient history, certainly can say with certainty that corresponds to the first therapy technique that humans have used for the treatment of diseases, and its history is intertwined with that of race human. Since ancient times, massage and especially self-massage represented by instinct the easiest method of therapy, almost automatically has actually been exercised through manual stilolazione, an analgesic action in the painful parts of our body. These experiences were common to all men paramount. In most ancient civilizations it began very early a collection of oral knowledge and systematization of the first attempts of therapy: what has happened in the West as part of the Mesopotamian civilization, Egyptian and Jewish, but there is almost nothing in this ancient heritage.
In the ancient world the Far East 2600 BC represents the beginning of a century of documented history of massage therapy. In this period I lived the first therapists we have heard and the third millennium BC date of the first techniques that you have some documentation. Qi Bo, Dai Ji, Yu Fu are the names of the first technical massage mythical known in China, lived, according to Chinese tradition, between 2600 and 2100 BC Since then, Chinese massage has been used more and better systematized.
A famous physician of antiquity, Bian Que (inventor of the method of clinical diagnosis), made use massage to cure diseases. According to an old catalog, the first monograph on massage techniques was the work "Ten chapters on massage Huangdi and Qibo" but unfortunately lost. In the Sui Dynasty (581-618), massage therapy has been treated as a special item. Massoterapeutici several methods presented in the "Etiology and symptoms of the disease," monograph (610) and the Chao Yuanfang Sun Simiao (581-682) of the Tang Dynasty, in his "Thousand precious remedies" and cited the methods of Laozi Bodhidharma . "General Collection sacred rescue" made in 1117 during the Song Dynasty, an entire chapter was reserved for massage therapy. Chiropractic techniques and clinical applications made further progress in the Yuan (1271-1368) Dynasty and during the Ming settled in a special clinical department, especially for the treatment of childhood diseases.
Hundreds of ancient and modern texts collect the accumulated experiences over the millennia. Massage therapy is currently defined in China, as already mentioned, with two conditions: the first tui na is an ancient word that goes back to before the Ming Dynasty period, this term is composed of two characters: the first tui means push, push, na means according to gripping, holding. The second sentence is a mo; the period after the Ming Dynasty. Also in this case we have two ideograms, the first means also pressure press, the second mo means tap, rub. The two slogans and tui na mo currently used interchangeably in everyday language, although there are slight differences; An mo equals lighter manipulations, more translated as massage, tui na suggests heavier manipulations associated with joint mobilization closer to the concept of physiotherapy.
Chinese massage is different from that used in the West for two reasons: the historical record long that connects to the beginnings of this ancient civilization that was created as part of a drug different from ours. Chinese medicine is based on different principles to Western: the theory of yin and yang, the law of the five movements, one of the three basic substances, the theory of organs and viscera. The feature that makes it particularly interesting from the point of view of massage therapy connects with the beginning of the main and secondary meridians, along which are located the acupuncture points: these energy channels connecting the outside with the interior of the organism, organs and viscera with the skin surface, the high to the low, the region with the rear of the front. The network of the immense energy of these links, explains why any stimulation of acupuncture point is able to determine local effects, also known in the West, and remote effects, explainable only with the meridian system. The theory of energy channels to provide an advantage Chinese massage compared to Western: the possibility of addressing diseases of internal organs and viscera, and not only those of the musculoskeletal system or nervous origin.
Chinese massage acts as
Long practice of this method of treatment and extraordinary scientific documentation collected and preserved in Chinese medical tradition gives us a picture of extreme clarity that illuminates the possible directions of Chinese massage. Massage effectiveness depends on their ability to harmonize the yin and yang, to regulate organs and viscera, the primary and secondary meridians, to improve energy circulation, blood, body fluids and promote joint mobility. The action of this therapy technique is based on three fundamental principles that are discussed in detail: the functional balance of the body, strengthening the body's defenses, stimulation of blood circulation.
According to Chinese medicine health of the individual is the result of the energy balance between yin and yang, between Qi and blood, between organs and viscera. This balance is achieved with the help of the system of primary and secondary meridians, which connect the interior of yin in nature, where the organs and viscera are housed, with the outside of Yang nature. The disease occurs when the man came into the microcosm in the macrocosm, is not in balance, it is a lack of harmony between the different parts of our body and / or between the organism and the environment that surrounds it. Therefore, therapy should have a purpose: to harmonize the yin and yang energy and blood, acting on organs and viscera through acupuncture points located along the route of the meridians. The massage acts on the skin surface and is then able to directly treat the affected area in the periphery: muscle problems, bones, ligaments, joints.
Through links between skin, the acupuncture points and the meridian system, massage can also affect internal organs. This makes it possible to work from the outside in order to rebalance the global energy. manual stimulation of skin areas corresponding to acupuncture points can induce local and general phenomena. These stimulation (stimulation distance or reflection) were studied experimentally and is attributable to changes in the humoral system neurotransmitters tone activation or inhibition of various neural structures cortical and subcortical (endorphins, enkephalins, system the inhibitors reticular activating noradrenergic systems, the theory of control gate, P and others).
How to strengthen the body's defenses
The Nei Jing, the first classic text of Chinese medicine, compiled in the third century. BC, says: "man of robust constitution does not suffer from diseases easily. "Yin yang Good balance and proper energy production and distribution is the basis of the proper functioning of the immune system. Chinese massage therapy is able to promote all correct processes to stimulate the production and circulation of energy and blood; these phenomena increase the body's resistance to disease.
Experimental studies were conducted by stimulation with massage manipulations, the skin staples chosen to activate the immune system and checking the results of the histochemical tests. Stimulation, performed in patients with good health, Shu points back with the pressure and push technique, repeated for about 10 minutes, it is able to experimentally induce the following modifications:
increase in the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes,
increased rate of bacterial phagocytosis of granulocytes,
increase in titer of complement.
Changes histochemical examinations are held for about four hours, then all indexes tend to gradually return to normal levels, the immune system, therefore stimulates specifically manipulation techniques made in suitable land. In terms of Chinese medicine, the results are the consequence of a strengthening of energy and the right defensive energy Qi Zheng Wei Qi in previously immunocompromised patients.
Stimulating circulation Xue (blood)
Massage promotes circulation of energy and blood, you can be dispersed stagnation and activate the functions of the primary and secondary meridians thus also the organs and viscera, connected to the outside through the meridians can be stimulated and promotes balance of the entire body. Massage determines, in the area in which it is carried out, an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and stimulating blood circulation, the same effects, and in particular, stimulating circulation, also perform a general level
HISTORY OF MASSAGE: types and techniques
The relaxing massage helps relieve stress and fatigue, which makes us feel well looked after and fills us with hugs, gives us moments of relaxation. Areas of the body where stress accumulates many: from the head to the neck, face, arms, back, foot. Thanks to massage increases the flexibility of physics, improves blood circulation and helps produce a feeling of intense vitality.
The aesthetic massage softens the skin and can lead to a reduction of cellulite. The latter depends on a malfunction of metabolism that creates inflammation, ie, an accumulation of fat located mainly in the legs. With manipulations can act on the lymph vessels so it is possible to release the sap that, for various reasons, has accumulated between the skin and muscle giving a feeling of immediate relief.
Sports massage is a part, but not least, criticism of training of each athlete.
In particular, the need for attention especially the legs and feet. Moreover, the lower extremities work hard all day and there is always the risk that these muscles accumulate stress.
The massage is designed to facilitate rehabilitation after injury or surgery, recovery and return to normal. In these cases, it is advisable to seek the help of a physiotherapist.
There are several massage techniques, but unfortunately without a unified terminology. Similar forms of management have different names, like names indicate different ways. In clinical treatment generally different forms of manipulation supplementano together apply. The basic modes are:
- Push: includes push with your finger or with palm.
digital Boost: Use the tip of his thumb to push a small area or an acupuncture point. E 'is characterized by moderate stimuli, restricted to the affected area, but can be applied at all points of the body, it is generally used for the acupuncture points of the head, face, chest and abdomen. Y 'effective headaches, stomach and back, abdominal pain, pain in muscles and joints.
Boost your handheld, press the area with your palm and push it in a certain direction. Interested in larger areas and can be used throughout the body, the force must be stable slow movements, the palm should adhere well to the contact surface. Unlocking channels, promotes blood circulation.
- Handling: using the thumb, index and middle fingers together or otherwise, to capture and release a certain area or certain points. Y 'indicated as adjunctive therapy for torticollis, pain of the joints and tendons.
- Pressure: Use your thumb or the base of the palm to press certain areas or at certain points with increasing force, in circular movements interspersed with brief stops. Cause for you - stimulation and usually combined with the clutch. Has analgesic effects, it relaxes muscles and heal the deformity of the spine.
- Touch: Use the palm or the three middle fingers together to manipulate a specific area in circular motions and rhythmic helping with wrist flexion and forearm. It is used mostly in the chest, abdominal and thoracic to treat stomach aches, abdominal distension, dyspepsia and stagnation of Qi.
- Clutch: use the Palm or the thenar or hypothenar to massage certain points with rectilinear movements back and forth. The clutch is performed at the beginning and end of the massage therapy. This massage causes soft and warm stimulation unblocked channels by activating blood and vital energy, also improves antioncotic analgesic action and regulation of the intestines, dilation of blood vessels, promoting blood circulation and secretion lymphatic.
- Percussion: You can not hit with the palm, fist or a tile.
Y "of general application on the head, shoulders, back, waist, buttocks and legs, especially for the treatment of rheumatic pain, muscle atrophy, cyanosis of the extremities, tingling and numbness, spasms muscle, etc.
- Vibration: keep transmitting the vibrational motion to the whole body. Suitable for all body parts must be vigorous and high frequency. They usually work with one hand, but you can use both. Produces analgesic action, activates blood, regulate the energy and functions of the stomach and spleen vital, it also promotes digestion and eliminates stagnation and so on.
- Rotation: one hand holding the distal part of a set and another proximal turn slowly. Y 'suitable for treatment of joints of the extremities, neck and waist, care movement disorders, stiff joints and difficulty in movement extensors and flexors.
- Route: take the diseased part with both hands or arms, pulling or rotating hard moving their hands in opposite directions until the joint produces a click. It is used as an adjunct to other therapies and is indicated for the treatment of joints.
- Unit: indicated mainly for the deployment of small joints, tendon injuries, for dysfunctions of the shoulder joints of the mandible and so on.
- Kneading: by slightly bending the joints of the metacarpals and phalanges, press the palm on the side of the diseased part of the carpus and move rhythmically and continuously, the coordination of movements pronator of the forearm and supinador flexors and wrist extensors.
These movements exert a certain force on the same massaged, unlocking channels and relaxation of tendons, also activate the energy and blood, as well as causing the vital analgesic action.
HISTORY OF MASSAGE: the most ancient and natural healing system
The word massage comes from the Hebrew word "massech" meaning rubbing, pressing, or the Greek "Masso" which means knead, to handle. The physical and psychological benefits of this practice have been recognized since ancient times, so we can certainly say that the medical art just started with massage.
In the "Kong Fou", the Chinese text of the 2698 BC describes physical exercises and various types of massages, aimed at achieving a perfect psycho-physical balance. In the eighteenth century BC, in the sacred text Ayur- Veda Brahma advised his disciples for hygienic massage. Even the medical literature of the Egyptians, Persians and Japanese often contains references to the beneficial effects of massage.
Based on limited knowledge about the functions of the body, the first doctors were, however, able to use as effective for treating fatigue massage, disease and trauma. Hippocrates (406 BC) - Greek physician father of modern medicine - describes "the anatripsis" literally "catch up" as a more efficient practice the same movement performed down the legs, demonstrating that he understood the mechanism lymphatic and blood circulation then demonstrated by Harvey at the beginning of the seventeenth century AD. In his writings, Hippocrates confirmed the virtues of massage dedicated to important observations massoterapica practices, also confirmed many centuries after his death. He wrote, "physicians should be experienced in many things, including undoubtedly massage" and even "The remedy is applicable to diseases such as acute to chronic and various forms of weakness, as they have the power and rinvigoritore care renewal. Many times I thought, while I was taking care of my patients, as if my hands had the unique property of removing waste products and various impurities contained in the diseased parts ". In Europe, during the period of the Roman Empire, this practice has been an important element in health care, in order to put the "massista" on the same floor of the doctor, and he talks a lot in the documents of the time.
While in the East was held tradition of massage in Western countries, the cult of this practice stopped during the Middle Ages when obscurantism led to despise and deny the needs and pleasures of the flesh of the body, focusing exclusively in the spiritual sphere (creating a fracture of this type in the individual); happened then wait for the Renaissance and the sixteenth century to witness the return of a therapeutic massage (mainly in France and Northern Europe).
In the twentieth century, the great progress made by conventional medicine initially placed on the second floor, traditional therapies that had been practiced for centuries, so most of the western population, dazzled by this, until a few decades ago, I barely knew the therapeutic value of human contact.
However, currently massage is experiencing a vigorous renaissance, thanks to a strong desire to return to "natural" values, especially as a reaction to severe stress conditions and drug abuse imposed by society.
Today, modern scientific research has finally recognized massage therapy as an effective, defining the mechanisms of action, indications and clinical contraindications. Not only that, the increasingly numerous and recent findings on the importance of the extracellular matrix and connective system of the entire physiology of the human body, they are reporting those who are able to act on them deeply (with technical and / or massage movement), the former major role in the health field.